Management (English version)

A. Definition of Management

Management comes from the word “to manage” which means to regulate, administer or manage. Many definitions have been given by the experts of the term of this management. But of the many definitions it is one that seems to hold in understanding the management, namely: Management is a process consisting of a series of activities, such as planning, organizing, penggerakandan control / monitoring, carried out to determine and achieve its intended purpose through the utilization of human resources and other resources.

Meanwhile, according to the notion that experts are as follows:
1. According Horold Koontz and Cyril O’Donnell:
Management is an attempt to achieve a particular goal through the activities of others.
2. According to R. Terry:
Management is a typical process of planning actions,
organization, mobilization and control are conducted to determine and achieve
targets that have been determined through the utilization of human resources and other resources.
3. According to James A.F. Stoner:
Management is the process of planning, organizing and use of organizational resources
others to achieve goals set pliers.
4. According to Lawrence A. Appley:
Management is the art of achieving that goal is through the efforts of others.
5. According to Drs. Oey Liang Lee:
Management is the art and science of organizing the planning, preparation, direction and
supervision than the human resources to achieve its intended purpose.

Term management, translation in the Indonesian language until now there has been no uniformity. Furthermore, when we study the management literature, it will be found that the term contains three terms of management, namely:
Management as a process,
Management as a collectivity of people who perform management activities,
Management as an art (Art) and as a science (Science)
According to the first sense, namely as a process management, different definitions given by experts. To show the full color management according to the definition of the first sense, the proposed three definitions.

In Encylopedia of the Social Sience say that management is a process by which the implementation of a particular purpose organized and supervised.
Furthermore, Hilman said that management is a function to achieve something through the activities of others and oversee the efforts of individuals to achieve the same goal.

According to the second sense, management is the collectivity of the people who perform management activities. So in other words, all the people who perform management activities in a particular agency is called management.

According to the third sense, management is the art (Art) or a science pnegetahuan. About the program actually no uniformity of opinion, a party to say that management is the art and the other party says that management is a science. In fact both the same opinion contains truth.

According G.R. Terry management is a process or framework, which involves guidance or direction of a group of people towards the organizational goals or intentions clear.

Juiga management is a science and art. Art is a knowledge of how to achieve the desired results or in other words dalm art is skill acquired from experience, observation and learning and the ability to use knowledge management.

According to Mary Parker Follett is an art of management to carry out a job through other people. The definition of this mary contain attention to the fact that managers achieve an organizational goal set by other people to do whatever bullet in it, not by the job by himself.

That’s management, but according to Stoner not only that. There are many more that no single definition that can be universally accepted. According to James AFStoner, management is a process of planning, organizing, leadership, and control efforts and the organization members to use all the resources of the organization to achieve its intended purpose.

B. Functions – Function Management

Management functions can be defined as any activity that would be done by a
managers in managerial activities. So that managerial activities performed by
the manager can be called as activity management process. Process begins
of making the procurement planning up to supervise the implementation of
plan. Supervision is carried out effectively aims to find out whether or not
rencanan implementation so that its intended purpose can be achieved.

Overall, these management functions are as follows:
1. Planning / Planning:
That is an attempt or effort to plan activities that will be implemented in order to
achieve its intended purpose. Planning is usually manifested in the form of
concept or a working program.
2. Organizing / Organizing:
Activities which include determining the structure, duties and responsibilities, job functions and
relationships between functions.
3. Formulation of Staff / Staffing:
Including the recruitment of employees, utilization, training, education and
development of employee resources effectively.
4. Briefing / directing:
That is the function giving orders or directions. It also includes leadership activities,
guidance, motivation and direction so that employees can work more effectively.
5. Coordinating / Coordinating:
Coordinate all functions which work in a totality of work organization.
Organizing contains matters as follows:
a. Synchronization activities
b. keterpduan activities
c. coordinate activities
d. meruntutkan activities
e. Prevent overlaping and vacancies events
6. Supervision / Controling:
Function that provides assessment, correction and evaluation of all activities. Continuous
continuous monitoring of the work being done. This function aims
to customize a plan that has been achieved with the implementation of activities. Results from
evaluation of this surveillance be made upon a recommendation for the next activity.

Management functions are different types of tasks or activities that management has a unique role and are supporting each other to achieve the objectives previously set.

Many experts who once argued about this management function. Take for example, George R. Terry. He mentioned that the management functions consist of:
a. Planning (Planning)
b. Organizing (Organizing)
c. Actuating (Penggerakkan)
d. Controlling (Monitoring).
While Harold Koontz and Cyril O’Donnell divided into management functions:
a. Planning (Planning)
b. Organizing (Organizing)
c. Staffing (Staff Development)
d. Directing (Construction Work)
e. Controlling (Monitoring).
Not much different from the opinions of experts above, Henry Fayol suggested that management functions consist of:
a. Planning (Planning)
b. Organizing (Organizing)
c. Commanding (Giving Command)
d. Coordinating (Coordinating)
e. Controlling (Monitoring).
Another expert called Lyndall F. Urwick added Henry Fayol opinion with Forecasting (Forecasting), so the sequence becomes:
a. Forecasting (Forecasting)
b. Planning (Planning)
c. Organizing (Organizing)
d. Commanding (Giving Command)
e. Coordinating (Coordinating)
f. Controlling (Monitoring).
Luther Gullick further divided into management functions:
a. Planning (Planning)
b. Organizing (Organizing)
c. Staffing (Staff Development)
d. Directing (Construction Work)
e. Coordinating (Coordinating)
f. Reporting (Reporting)
g. Budgeting (Budget).

For more details, here you will learn a brief description of the management functions most widely used.

Planning (Planning) is a management function that must be answered SWIH formula. WHAT (what) is going to do, WHY (why) should do what, WHEN (time) to do what, WHERE (where) do anything, the WHO (who) is doing what, HOW (how) how to do what,

Organizing (Organizing) is a management function associated with the division of tasks. Who’s doing what and who is accountable to whom.

Penggerakkan (actuating) the management functions related to how to move the work relative (subordinate) to work with full awareness, without coercion.
Supervision (Controlling) is also called the control function. A process to measure or compare the plans that have been made with the implementation. With this control, is expected not to any errors or irregularities.

In addition, Forecasting (Forecasting) is often used as a material consideration. Forecasting is predicting activity, project or make estimates of the various possibilities that will occur before a more definite plans can be done.

C. Principles of Management

Management principles are the basics and the core values of the success of a management.
According to Henry Fayol. a French industrialist, the principles of management should be flexible in the sense that needs to be considered in accordance with specific conditions and situations change. Principle – a general principle according to the management of Henry Fayol.
1. The division of labor (Division of work)
The division of labor should be adjusted to the abilities and skills so that the implementation of effective work. Therefore, the placement of employees must use the principle of the right man in the right place. The division of labor must be rational / objective, not emotional based on the subjective basis of like and dislike.
With the principle of the right people the right place (the right man in the right place) will provide a guarantee of stability, smoothness and efficiency of work. A good division of labor is the key to working penyelengaraan. carelessness in the division of labor would affect less well and may cause failures in the implementation of the work, therefore, an experienced manager will put the division of labor as the main principle will be the starting point for other principles.
2. The authority and responsibility (Authority and Responsibility)
Every employee has the authority to do the work and any inherent authority or accountability followed. Authority and responsibility must be balanced. Every job must be able to provide appropriate accountability to the authority. Therefore, the smaller the smaller authorities are accountable and vice versa.
The biggest responsibility lies on top managers. The failure of a business is not with the employee, but located on the top leadership as having the largest wewemang top managers. therefore, if top managers do not have the expertise and leadership, the authority available to him a boomerang.
3. Discipline (Discipline)
Discipline is the obedient and submissive feelings of job responsibility. This discipline is closely linked to the authority. If the authority does not run properly, then the discipline will be lost. Because of this, the authority holder must be able to instill discipline on itself so disrinya have a responsibility towards pekerajaan accordance with existing weweanng him.
4. Unity of command (Unity of command)
In melakasanakan job, employees must observe the principle of unity of command so that implementation can work very well executed. Employees must know to whom he should be responsible within their authority obtained. Commands coming from other managers told employees to destroy serorang course of authority and responsibility and division of labor.
5. Union directives (Unity of direction)
In carrying out the duties and responsibilities, employees need to be directed toward the target. Unity of direction is closely related to the division of labor. Unity of direction also depends on unity of command. In undertaking the work could have been the two commands that cause the opposite direction. Therefore, a clear need to plot where the employee had the authority to pmelaksanakan work and to whom he must know the limits of authority and responsibility to avoid mistakes. Implementation guidance unity (unity of directiion) can not be separated from pembaguan work, authority and responsibility, discipline, and unity of command.
6. Prioritize the interests of the organization above their own interests
Each employee must devote themselves to the interests of the interests of the organization. That kind of thing is a very important requirement for any activity that goes loancar achievable goals well.
Setian employees can devote personal interests to the interests of the organization have a sense that if the personal interest actually depends on the success-at least the organization. The principle of devotion to the interests of private interests can be realized orgabisasi, apanila every employee feels like the work that has a high discipline.
7. Payroll clerk
Salary or wages for employees is the compensation that determines the realization of the smooth working. Employees who are overwhelmed by feelings of anxiety and lack of will to concentrate on duties and obligations that can lead to imperfections in the work. Therefore, in principle think of how haris payroll for the employee to work in peace. Payroll system must be taken into account in order to discipline and excitement menimbuulkan work so that employees compete to make greater achievements. The principle of more pay for more prestige (more effort for better performance), and the principle of equal wages for equal achievement needs to be applied for when there is a difference will lead to lethargy in the works and will probably not lead to disciplinary action.
8. Centrality (Centralization)
Centralization of authority would lead to centralization of responsibility in an activity. Tanggung jawab terakhir terletak ada orang yang memegang wewenang tertinggi atau manajer puncak. Centralization does not mean the power to use the authority, but to avoid kesimpangsiurang authority and responsibility. This centralization of authority does not eliminate the principle of delegation of authority (delegation of authority)
9. Hierarchy (levels)
The division of labor led to the superiors and subordinates. If the division of labor which covers an area large enough to cause the hierarchy. Hierarchy of authority is measured at the greatest managers and so on respectively the top down. with the existence of this hierarchy, every employee will know to whom he should be responsible and from whom he received orders.
10. Order (Order)
Orderliness in performing work is the main requirement because basically no one who can work in a state of chaos or tension. Order in a job can be achieved if all employees, both superiors and subordinates have a high discipline. Therefore, order and discipline is required in achieving goals.
11. Fairness and honesty
Fairness and honesty is a prerequisite for achieving its intended purpose. Justice and fairness related to employee morale and can not be separated. Justice and fairness must be enforced starting from the boss because the boss has the greatest authority. The manager of a fair and honest will use its authority to do your best to do justice and honesty in his subordinates.
12. Stability conditions of employees
In any event the employee must be kept stable best to all the work goes smoothly. Stability employees realized because of the good work discipline and the order of events.
Humans as social beings who have a desire cultured, feelings and thoughts. If desires are not met, feelings of distress and confusion will cause turbulence in the works.
13. Initiative (Inisiative)
Initiatives arising from within a person who uses the intellect. Initiative led to a desire to create something useful for the resolution of work in the best beiknya. So the initiative will accumulate, feelings, thoughts, expertise and experience of a person. Therefore, any initiative that comes from the employees must be respected. Initiative (initiative) has the meaning respect for others, because it takes human nature appreciation. Each employee’s rejection of the initiative is one step to reject morale. Therefore, a wise manager will receive a happy day initiatives born employees.
14. The spirit of unity and esprit de corps
Each employee must have a sense of unity, the sense of common fate, causing sepenanggyungan spirit of good cooperation. spirit of unity will be born if every employee has the awareness that every employee is to other employees and other employees are required by him. Managers who have the leadership will be able to give birth spirit of unity (esprit de corp), while managers who like to force in ways that will bear rough friction de corp (the disintegration of the corps) and lead to disaster.

D. Depth of Management

In that sense it is said that management is the process of achieving goals through the work of others. Thus there is in the management of at least 4 (four) features, namely:
1. no purpose to be achieved,
2. no leader (boss),
3. There is headed (subordinates),
4. there is cooperation.

Special leaders concerned (employer) must have the ability (skills). Ability (skills) which is composed of:
1. Managerial skills (entrepreneurial), namely the ability to effectively use the opportunity and ability to lead efforts that mattered.
2.Techological skills, the special skills that are economically necessary technical work on the implementation of economically.
3. Organizational skills, the intelligence to manage a variety of businesses.

What can you tell from the picture above? The picture above shows that the success or failure of an enterprise or institution achieve this goal depends on the ability of the three leaders should possess.
In fact, not every leader must have the capability with the same intensity level. For leaders themselves can be grouped into 3 (three) levels. So the ability to have any different course.
The leadership or management level consists of:
1. Top Management (Top Level Management)
2. Middle Management (Middle Management)
3. Lower Management (Management Level Low).

Number of management at every level depends on the size of an organization or institution. However, usually Top Management would be less in number than in Middle Management, and Middle Management less than the Lower Management.

E. Management Areas

The progress of science occurs in all fields of science, even if there were differences may simply lie in the lot or at least scholars who deal with one area of science, or lies in fast or slow the progress of science is concerned. Special management areas have their own place in its development the last decades of this, it can be proved by the number of your courses, departments and akademiakademi involving themselves with the field of management.
The field of management studies in question, among others, as follows:
1. Management Office
According to William Leffingwell & Edwin Robinson, Office Management can be defined as planning, controlling, and organizing an office job, and those who do penggerakkan to achieve the objectives that have been determined in advance.

Thus, in essence Management Office is planning a series of activities, organize (organize and arrange), directing (providing direction and guidance), watch and control (to control) to organize an orderly according to destination about something or activities.
This or targets affected by a series of events is that in general office work (office work).

Which includes office work including:
a. typing (typing)
b. count (Calculating)
c. check (checking)
d. save warkat / archives (filing)
e. call (telephoning)
f. duplicate (duplicating)
g. send a letter (mailing)
h. and other activities.
2. Production Management
Production Management can be interpreted as setting the maximum activity of the factors of production (natural, labor, capital and skills) in order to create or increase the usefulness of a product or service.
The activities in the regulation of production factors tesebut not be separated from the implementation of management functions including planning, organizing, and supervision penggerakkan. Management functions are crucial to the success of the production.

The management objective is to regulate the production of goods or services produced in quantity, quality, price, time and specific place in accordance with customer needs. Another goal of the production management is that consumers and producers / companies were satisfied or benefits. Consumers satisfied with the goods or services purchased. Producers / companies satisfied with the profits / benefits he gets.
Until this Production Management if there is not yet understood? If still there, read it over again, especially on the perceived difficult to understand.
To test your understanding, do the following exercises!
Mention the difference between office management with production management!
Management offices ………………………………………… ………………..
………………………………………….. ………………………………………….. ……..
whereas the production management ……………………………………….. ……….
What is your answer about the above exercise? Compare with the answer below!

Management emphasis on the maintenance office office work (office work), while management focuses on the regulation of production factors of production (natural, labor, capital and skills). Is your answer correct? If true, that is what is expected. If you are one then read again the description above material.
3. Marketing Management
Before discussing the marketing management, you should first understand the marketing sense. According to Philip Kotler, marketing is the human activity which aims to satisfy human needs and wants through exchange processes.
While the American Marketing Association, provides a definition that marketing is the process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion and distribution of ideas, which satisfy individual and organizational goals.

Jadi, manajemen pemasaran adalah kegiatan pengaturan secara maksimal fungsi-fungsi pemasaran agar kegiatan pertukaran atau penyampaian barang atau jasa dari produsen ke konsumen dapat berjalan lancar dan memuaskan.
The marketing functions consist of:
a. Sales, this function is the main function, because it aims to immediately sell goods / services to consumers, so make a profit.
b. Purchase, aims to select the items to be purchased for resale. For example choose the price, type, shape, color quality and return if sold will benefit.
c. Transportation, transfer function of the goods produced goods to the goods consumed. For example determining transportation costs and other related distribution.
d. Storage, is a function to store goods barng when finished manufactured goods until the goods are consumed.
e. Spending, function better get capital from internal sources (owners) and external (not the owner).
f. Penanggungan risk, is a function to avoid and reduce the risks associated with the marketing of goods, such as insurance programs.
g. Standardization and grading,
Standardization is the basic boundaries in the form barangbarang specifications, such as the size of the number, capacity, physical and strength.
Grading is an attempt to classify goods into the category of quality standards has gained world trade. For instance checking and sorting the five senses, by means of, or through an example.
h. Collecting Market Information, about the kinds of goods that circulate in the market, the amount, the required consumer goods, price and so on.
4. Financial Management
Financial management known as the financing, or capital expenditure. Financial management is an activity to obtain and use the funds with the aim of increasing or maximizing the value of the company.

From that sense, then in financial management there are two functions, namely:
a. function to get funding, how do I get the most profitable funds,
b. function using the funds, how to use existing funds to be effective and efficient.
The activities in financial management including:
a. determine the amount of funds required
b. allocate funds available
c. determine the source of funds taking into account interest rates and
repayment period, and others.
5. Management Personnel
Before discussing personnel management, you will be invited to first understand the sense of personnel.
Said personnel or personnel or employment means the total of people who work on a particular organization.

Thus Personnel Management which means all activities concerned with issues of human labor in a cooperative effort to achieve certain goals.
Because the object is human labor, and personnel management activities are not far from the reception until the retirement of workers / employees.

If specified then the personnel management activities consist of:
a. Procurement employees / revenue
b. Withdrawal of labor, to fill the vacant position,
c. Employee selection,
d. Development staff
e. Rotation (rotation) positions
f. Motivating employees
g. Welfare of employees.


Posted on November 3, 2009, in Education and tagged , . Bookmark the permalink. Leave a comment.

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